Conjunctions ve and de
Our first conjunctions are ve and de.
The conjunction “ve” just like the “and” in English, is used to connect words, phrases or clause:
- Mehmet ve Ayça dışarda top oynadılar.
(Mehmet and Ayça played ball outside).
- Çantamda defterim, ders kitabım ve kalem kutum var.
(I have my notebook, my class book and my pencil case inside my backpack)
- Dün okula gittim ve öğretmenimle konuştum.
(Yesterday I went to school and talked with my teacher.)
The Conjunction “de”
The “-de/-da” conjunction is a separate word which co-ordinates words or clauses. In English, it generally means “too”. Changing the position of “-de/-da” can change the meaning of the sentence:
- Ahmet de hamburger yemek istiyor.
(Ahmet too wants to eat a hamburger.)
- Ali hamburger de yemek istiyor.
(Ali wants to eat a hamburger too/as well.)
Locative Case and “de”
Be sure to not mix the conjuction “-de/-da” with the locative marker “-de/-da/-te/-ta”. The locative case marker is a suffix that is added directly after the word and the meaning is completly different.
The conjunction “hem… hem de” literally means “both… and” in English. It can also mean “on the one hand,… on the other hand …”. The “de” on the second “hem” is also optional. Be sure to use the same grammatical word when using this conjunction:
- Tülün hem akıllı hem (de) çok güzel bir kız.
(Tülün is both an intelligent and a beautiful girl.)
- Hergün hem dersine çalışıyor hem de spor yapıyor.
(He both studies and does sports everyday.)
- Hem ödevim var diyorsun hem de bütün gün televizyon izliyorsun!
(On the one hand, you say you have homework, on the other hand, you watch TV all day!)